Home FAQ
  1. How do greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cause climate change?
  2. What causes GHG emissions?
  3. What are the most prevalent GHG?
  4. What are ‘carbon credits’?
  5. How do trees help to fight climate change?
  6. What is meant by greenhouse gas ‘offset’?
  7. Why contribute to Carbone boréal AND/OR source reduction?
  8. How will contributions to Carbone boréal be spent?
  9. How are Carbone boréal plantations established?
  10. What are Carbone boréal carbon credits?
  11. I would like to make (or I have) a plantation on my property. Can I get carbon credits?
  12. What topics will be tackled by Carbone boréal research?
  13. What does the Carbone boréal logo represent?

1. How do greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cause climate change?

The atmosphere is transparent to light radiation, but retains part of the infrareds. Indeed, the light that reaches the ground is partially reemitted as infrareds according to the albedo, which is a measure of surface reflectivity. A number of atmospheric gases help to contain the infrareds and so create a greenhouse effect. Without these GHG, the average temperature on Earth would be -19° C, compared to 14 degrees today. This means that GHG are actually essential to life on Earth, as we know it! But the relatively recent addition of GHG produced by human activity has increased the amount of heat retained within the system and, hence, accrued global warming and the associated unprecedented climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC – http://www.ipcc.ch) has produced four series of reports on the subject since 1990. The last series, published in 2007, state that anthropogenic (manmade) emissions are very likely (confidence level above 90 %) the cause of the current global warming trend. IPCC experts believe that global warming in 2050 will be in the order of 2° C. Since the beginning of the industrial era, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the principal anthropogenic GHG, have gone from 280 ppm (parts per million) to 390 ppm in 2008. CO2 concentrations are continually monitored and the results are posted athttp://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/co2_data_mlo.html

2. What causes GHG emissions?

Volcanoes are the main natural source of CO2, while the principal sinks are attributable to carbon fixation by the oceans and photosynthesis in trees. Natural sinks easily offset the average volcanic activity. As opposed to the photosynthesis-respiration-decomposition cycle (called “biogenic”), the ‘physical’ cycle is looped around extremely long time periods, in the order of hundreds of millions of years, even billions of years.

Normally, sinks balance out the sources, keeping CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere relatively stable. However, since the beginning of the industrial era, the two-million-year-old equilibrium has been upset. GHG emissions from combined sources (anthropogenic and natural) are henceforth about 40 % higher than the offsetting capacity of sinks.

3. What are the most prevalent GHG?

While greenhouse gases, anthropogenic or natural, are minor components of the atmosphere, their impact on climate through increased greenhouse effect are significant. The principal greenhouse gases (and their atmospheric concentrations) are the following:

Anthropogenic and/or natural sources:

  • Water vapour: H2O (max. 3 % locally)
  • Carbon dioxide: CO2 (390 parts per million – ppm – or 0.039 %)
  • Methane: CH4 (1.7 ppm)
  • Dinitrogen oxide: N2O (0.3 ppm)

Entirely industrial sources:

  • Various halogen gases (CFC, HFC, HCFC, PFC, SF6) (all in parts per trillion, 1 ppt = 0.001 ppm)

Since water vapour (H2O) has an average nine-day cycle in the atmosphere, it has no effect on climate change. Only long-life gases can cause such growth, and the reference gas is CO2. Every GHG is thus reported in terms of ‘CO2 equivalent’ (CO2eq.), and then cross-referenced into ‘Global Warming Potential’ (GWP) (e.g. GWP CO2 = 1; GWP CH4 = 25, GWP N2O = 298). Globally, H2O causes about 65 % of the natural greenhouse effect, while CO2 – despite its relatively low atmospheric concentration – causes 25 %, which clearly shows that even a very small increase in CO2 concentration can significantly increase the natural greenhouse effect.

4. What are ‘carbon credits’?

Carbon credits are a trading system based on tonnes of CO2 equivalent. This means that a tonne of CO2 equivalent has a price. In fact, it is the ‘absence’ or reduction of CO2 emissions that is the object of trade. Carbon credits are known under different names in different types of market (regulated or voluntary).

Main credit types of the Kyoto Protocol regulated market:

  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
    • Carbon credits = Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)
  • Joint Implementation (JI)
    • Carbon credits = Emission Reduction Units (ERUs)
  • Allowance Trading
    • Carbon credits = Assigned Amount Units (AAUs)

Main carbon credits on voluntary markets:

  • Gold Standard = VGS
  • Climate Action Registry = CAR
  • Voluntary Carbon Standard = VCS
  • Chicago Climate Exchange = CFI

CO2 credits – also called ‘carbon credits’ – are generated by a market scheme that gives financial incentives to reduce GHG emissions. Participating organization emissions are capped, which in sort is the restraining component of the system. The cap allows authorities (governments) to issue emission allowances, or quotas. Some organizations are able to comply with their quotas, others not, which creates scarcity. Then, the trading scheme in turn creates flexibility, giving organizations with higher emission reduction costs the possibility of purchasing carbon credits at better prices from organizations that are under the cap.

Allowances are set according to the emission quotas, which are determined through a regulatory mechanism established by public authorities. To put it simply, the balance between offer and demand is the mechanism by which credits are generated. For example, say organization A receives X allowances, but maintains its GHG emissions below that limit for a given year (in tonnes CO2eq). It will have credits for sale. For its part, organization B cannot stay below the cap and will have to buy credits from organization A.

Organization B could also purchase credits from another non-regulated organization, C, that has decided to run a GHG project and thus generated CO2 credits. This is what is called the ‘offset’ market. From a generic standpoint, GHG emissions are offset through a financing scheme by which a natural or legal entity partially or fully substitutes source reduction of its emissions by purchasing an equivalent amount of carbon credits from a third party.

In the voluntary market, organization D conducts one or more GHG projects, thus generating emission credits. It can sell them ‘over the counter’ or to offset retailers who in turn sell them to other organizations or individuals. Sellers and buyers may have different motives, but generally these are related to getting a better grasp of the carbon market, social responsibility, and business opportunities or market positioning.

We do not live in a perfect world and, consequently, projects vary significantly in quality and yield. Several types of certification guarantee the value of carbon credits; the strictest and most recognized being those of the CDM and MOC regulated markets, controlled by a rigorous process based on proven methods. In the voluntary market, different types of ‘certification’ can give some assurance of value to traded credits. Value is generally associated with various elements like demonstration of additionality, promoter credibility, process transparency, increased absorption or reduction assessments by an independent and credible third party, well-kept records to avoid double counting and, of course, use of recognized quantification protocols. Some projects also aim at integrating sustainable development goals. The Carbone Boréal project considers all of these components to ensure the highest possible offset credit value. The project and research topics are part of a sustainable development perspective, with an advisory committee made up of stakeholders who are interested and/or involved in the project (including the Mashteuiatsh Montagnais first nation community).

5. How do trees help to fight climate change?

Human activity, particularly in the industrial era and the extensive use of fossil fuels, greatly increases the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While the greenhouse effect is an essential component of life as we know it, the increase in GHG emissions has led us to a point where global warming is unprecedented in the relatively recent history of Earth (over the past 800,000 years), and may even be a threat to our own survival.

Yet, the most commonly emitted GHG is CO2, which happens to be the only gas used by plants to make photosynthesis – a phenomenon that is at the foundations of life on Earth. In fact, nearly one-third (30 %) of the GHG emissions generated by mankind are currently being recovered by this natural process; by the plants and especially the trees that surround us. In other words, without trees climate change would be a much bigger problem.

World climate experts therefore consider that CO2 sequestration by trees – a direct result of photosynthesis – is one of the most obvious means of mitigating GHG emissions. There are other mitigation actions that can be implemented. For example, improved home energy efficiency, or migrating from fossil fuel heating to hydro-electricity. However, increasing CO2 sequestration by trees is one of the least expensive and least technically risky solutions. In fact, these experts believe that relatively modest effort would be required to increase the contribution of trees from 25 % (today) to 40 % (by 2030) on the global scale. The major aspect of this solution is increasing the size of wooded areas by planting trees and reducing deforestation.

6. What is meant by greenhouse gas ‘offset’?

Offsetting GHG emissions is an exchange process by which a natural or legal entity partially or fully substitutes source reduction of its emissions by purchasing an equivalent amount of carbon credits from a third party. The underlying principle of offsetting is that a given amount of GHG emissions in one area can be offset by reduction or sequestration of an equivalent amount in another location. This ‘geographical neutrality’ principle sits at the heart of the processes implemented by the Kyoto Protocol: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI).

Offsetting by planting trees is therefore a GHG emission mitigation method. Mitigation is in fact one of three globally recognized solutions to climate change: 1) Reducing emissions (burning less fuel by walking or bicycling instead of driving); 2) Mitigating past or unavoidable emissions (capturing CO2 by planting trees); and 3) Adapting to climate change (by protecting coastal areas threatened by increasing sea levels and shorter winters). In short, offsetting GHG emissions is a way of responding to the fact that there is already too much CO2 in the atmosphere and that more will be inevitably emitted by human activity.

As a general rule, offsetting aims at removing from the atmosphere the equivalent of GHG emissions created by a given activity, which requires precise emission counts to determine how much offsetting is required for a carbon neutral emission result. To this end, rigorous validation is necessary to make sure GHG emissions and offsetting measures balance out. For example, one litre of burned fuel emits 2.4 kg of CO2, meaning that a small car using 10 litres/100 km emits 0.24 kg of CO2 per km. Further, estimates say that, on average, one black spruce in the boreal forest removes 140 kg of CO2 over the first 70 years of its life. Therefore, a single black spruce can offset the GHG emitted by a compact car over 583 km (140 kg sequestered ÷ 0.24 kg emitted per km), more or less the distance from Saguenay to Montreal. Or, one hectare of mature black spruce (2,000 trees) can offset the yearly gas consumption (24,000 km) of fifty or so compact cars.

The Carbone boréal offset approach includes painstaking and transparent verification of net sequestration. First, every tree planted is georeferenced and logged in the Carbone boréal registry, available on our Website at www.uqac.ca/carbone-boreal In this way Carbone boréal contributors can find out exactly where their offsetting trees have been planted. Then, the quantification protocol and net carbon sequestration monitoring are done according to standard ISO 14064-2, and then validated by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). Project experimental plots are then audited by a recognized, independent third party, Bureau de normalisation du Québec (BNQ), according to international standard ISO 14064-3. Furthermore, all experimental plots are an integral part of a network of experimental designs scrutinized by UQAC researchers and graduate student (Master’s and Ph.D.), and collaborating researchers from governments and other universities. Overall, the research deals with various topics relative to computing real (or estimated) sequestration by trees. That is how tree sequestration hypotheses are tested in detail, relative to the various factors that may affect sequestration rates, such as type of soil, competitive vegetation intensity, indigenous species of planted trees (black spruce vs. jack pine vs. tamarack), and others. Also, the best mathematical modelling tools are used to see how tree sequestration evolves over time, taking into account natural disasters (fire, insect outbreak, etc.), or other factors that can affect sequestration over the long term. The social and ethical aspects of afforestation relative to the communities and groups involved are also part of the research agenda. Finally, the results of Carbone boréal research are subject to publication in peer-reviewed scientific literature, and made available on the Carbone boréal Website. That is how any and all offset information and affirmations will constantly be updated as the science progresses, thanks to the efforts of each and every Carbone boreal project contributor.

7. Why contribute to Carbone boréal AND/OR source reduction?

Source reduction and mitigation of emissions are two sides of the same coin and MUST join forces in the pursuit of a common goal. In fact, if greenhouse gases continue to build up at the current rate, the two approaches are needed to face the danger posed by the predicted global temperature increase. The most recent studies have even shown that, hypothetically, even zero anthropogenic GHG emissions would not be enough to prevent global warming over the short term, because the atmospheric residence time of past emissions is much longer that previously thought. In short, not only must GHG emissions be reduced, the unavoidable emissions generated even by our most essential everyday activities must be mitigated. For example, even with the best cultivation practices, agriculture is a source of emissions.

Moreover, the ‘beauty’ of planting trees to mitigate greenhouse gases is the long-term sequestration effect, particularly in the boreal zone where tree growth is slow. A plantation will therefore potentially remove greenhouses gases from the atmosphere during a critical period when the ‘easy’ solutions will already have been implemented. Even if CO2 sequestration by tree planting is not necessarily enough to stabilize carbon stocks more or less permanently (e.g. due to losses caused by natural disturbances), it nevertheless buys us time by delaying the global warming trend. On the other hand, for plantations to become efficient means of mitigation, although at times temporary, they have to be put in place quickly for one, and also in a way that limits GHG emissions (generated by forestry machinery for example). These stakes, in terms of sequestration ‘efficiency’ and ‘permanence’, are in fact the focus of concrete research projects by the Carbone boréal research team.

Another beneficial aspect of GHG mitigation by tree planting is that it does more than just offset emissions from ongoing human activity; it can also sequester past emissions. Indeed, the Carbone boreal offsetting programme invites every contributor to be Climate PositiveTM by offsetting twice the GHG emissions generated by the activity they want to offset. The Climate PositiveTM concept by the UQAC Chair on Eco-advising aims to foster one of the fundamental principles of sustainable development: intra- and inter-generational equity. Analysis of the latest IPCC reports shows that even if significant headway is made in terms of limiting GHG emissions on a global scale, non-offset emissions could double pre-industrial concentrations by mid-century. By offsetting twice the measured GHG emissions, this eventuality can be delayed, giving today’s needy and future generations room to manoeuvre in their efforts to adapt to climate change, in terms of knowledge, infrastructures, and technologies. The idea is to unite the principle of accountability with that of precautionary measures.

8. How will contributions to Carbone boréal be spent?

faq All offsetting measures taken through the Carbone boréal programme are also contributions to UQAC-based research on carbon sequestration of afforested open woodlands in the boreal zone. The Carbone boréal contribution scheme is a three-step process:

  • Contributors determine their level of GHG offset by first calculating the emissions generated by the targeted activity (in tonnes of CO2equivalent), and then calculating the number of trees needed to sequester those emissions. Carbone boréal makes available an easy-to-use interface for calculating the emissions generated by common activities and converting the result into the number of trees needed. Many similar computation tools are available on the Internet, some of which are listed under the “Useful links” tab of this Website. Contributors who know their emission level can also enter it in the interface to find out how many trees they need to offset those emissions. The number of trees varies according to the estimated sequestration rate of mature black spruce (70 yrs) in a plantation within the closed-crown forest of the boreal zone, or 0.140 tonne of CO2 (140 kg), as stated in Gaboury et al. (2009). At this point contributors can also chose the Climate PositiveTM option.
  • Once the offset value has been determined, knowing that a tree costs $4, contributors click on “Offset online” and are redirected to the UQAC major development campaign, where all donations are handled, including Carbone boréal contributions. Hence, offset contributions are treated as donations to the major development campaign, meaning that income tax receipts for 100 % of the sum are issued to contributors.
  • The UQAC major development campaign then forwards the contributions to Carbone boréal through UQAC development funds, and eventually to project researchers. The funds are allocated thus: 20 % is capitalized in the Eco-advising Chair research funds for Carbone boréal project research grants; 5 % goes to Carbone boréal administrative purposes; and the rest (75 %) goes directly to UQAC researcher accounts for research projects on priority topics.

9. How are Carbone boréal plantations established?

Plantations are established once per year, in 100-hectare allotments, amounting to about 200,000 new trees per year. A 100-hectare allotment is not entirely planted in one location, but rather distributed within the Carbone boréal priority sector in five 20-hectare blocks (see the figure below).
limites_nordiques_attributions The idea is to disperse the risk of loss from natural causes (fire, insects, etc.) as much as possible, so that a single event is unlikely to affect all trees planted to offset a specific activity. The trees are ascribed to their Carbone boréal contributors in a threefold process:

A) The 100 hectares planted every year are established between June and September in the Carbone boréal priority sector, based on a pre-established geographical distribution plan (in collaboration with the Québec ministry of natural resources and wildlife) for experimental blocks (five 20-hectare blocks per year). Each experimental block (replications in statistical terms) is designed to test three fundamental scientific questions:

  • What effect does the density of mature trees already in place (those making up the “baseline scenario”) have on the growth and survival of regeneration (advanced regeneration, planted, or natural seeding), carbon stock growth, soil fertility, etc?
  • To what point does the species planted influence the yield of afforested sites, carbon stock growth, etc? Carbone boréal will indeed test the efficiency of different indigenous tree species in its experimental blocks, particularly black spruce, white spruce, jack pine, and tamarack.
  • How does induced natural seeding (often abundant following soil scarification) compare to the planted trees in terms of yield, survival, spatial distribution, carbon stock growth, etc?

It should be noted here that both planted trees and naturally occurring trees by seeding (as a result of soil scarification) are ascribed to Carbone boréal contributors (the two being the result of human intervention, in compliance with existing international standards, IPCC 2003), up to a maximum 2,000 trees per hectare. See the schematic representation of an experimental block below.

schema_bloc_experimental

B) Each tree (planted or naturally seeded) of the five annual experimental blocks is ascribed to a new Carbone boréal contributor in the fall of the planting year, according to the number of trees per contributor and the following three requirements:

  • Maximum spatial distribution of trees
  • Balanced mix of planted tree species
  • Balance mix of planted and naturally seeded trees

It should be noted here that both planted trees and naturally occurring trees by seeding (as a result of soil scarification) are ascribed to Carbone boréal contributors (the two being the result of human intervention, in compliance with existing international standards, IPCC 2003), up to a maximum 2,000 trees per hectare. See the schematic representation of an experimental block below.

C) The contributors and their trees will be subsequently listed in the Carbone boréal registry, with the number of trees, corresponding experimental blocks, and geographical coordinates clearly indicated. Pictures of each experimental block will also be included in the records..

10. What are Carbone boréal carbon credits?

The regulated carbon market created as a result of the Kyoto Protocol – with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) as its central mechanisms – has strict, well-defined approval criteria for plantation projects. As for the voluntary market, to which Carbone boréal belongs, the absence of legal or regulated obligations makes it difficult to coordinate standards and certification processes. However, the voluntary offset market has been expanding fast since 2005, and the proposed standards have been analyzed, revised, and improved. Some certification programmes specific to plantation projects do exist, and quantification standards can be applied. Standard ISO 14064-2, recognized internationally, will be used for quantifying Carbone boréal afforestation project. This is a Canadian Standards Association (CSA) GHG CleanProjects Registry™ requirement. The Chair on Eco-Advising and CSA have set up a partnership so that Carbone boréal project appears in the registry in and eventually becomes THE reference for afforestation projects in boreal open woodlands. This strict registration process assures every tonne of offset CO2 is given a serial number, thus eliminating the possibility of doubling carbon absorption counts. Audit of the increased carbon sequestration statements will be conducted according to standard ISO 14064-3, by the Bureau de Normalisation du Québec (BNQ), an independent, recognized third party.

The carbon sequestration measurement, validation and audit methodology of the Carbone boréal project also includes a triple ‘risk insurance’. First, all project plantations are given the status of ‘Experimental forest’, granted by the Québec’s Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune (Forest Act, Chapter V, Section I, Articles 107-109), which gives them long-term protection against harvesting. Then, the likelihood of plantation reversal by natural causes (fires, insects, diseases, etc.) is lowered through spatial distribution and the use of different tree species. The plantations will be distributed based on distinctive experimental designs, each covering 100 hectares (ha) and divided into five 20-hectare blocks (replications in statistical terms), located tens of kilometres apart within the boreal forest (in the so-called commercial zone). And each block will include an assortment of indigenous species (black spruce, jack pine, tamarack), each with specific resistance to insects and/or fires. Finally, an existing network of experimental plantations on open woodlands will serve as backup in case the stated offset rate (140 kg of CO2per tree after 70 yrs) is compromised due to mortality or other causes (fire, insects, diseases, windfall, browsing, etc.). This strict, transparent, validated and verified method guarantees that each and every contributor will receive credible carbon credits.

11. I would like to make (or I have) a plantation on my property. Can I get carbon credits?

For a tree plantation to have credible value on the carbon market, in terms of offset credits, the plantation must verifiably correspond to net positive sequestration (additional) relative to the “reference scenario”, which is the same site without plantation or other intervention of any kind. For the growth of carbon sequestration from plantation to be considered additional to what would have normally occurred, the land on which the plantation is made (or has been made) must also meet the afforestation/reforestation criteria set out in the best internationally recognized protocols, such as Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol. The land Carbone boréal uses for plantation meets these criteria. But the above requirements make counterfactual assessments difficult if the reference scenario was not established and monitored from the start (as planting started). Again the Carbone boreal lands permit that since reference lands are kept as is. Moreover, accounting of the scenarios (afforestation/reforestation and reference) must be done in compliance with the best methodologies, standards, and protocols available, and a credible, independent third party must be called upon to verify the sequestration growth statements, plantation monitoring, and documentation. In short, supplying the market with sound carbon credits that meet investor requirements involves investing large sums on monitoring, accounting, and verification. Being specific to indigenous species of spruce-moss stands, the Carbone boréal project recommends that private project promoters refer to the TreeCanada protocol, an organization that can offer assistance for private land projects.

12. What topics will be tackled by Carbone boréal research?

The Carbone boréal research programme is financed by its offset contributors and will mainly deal with five long-term research themes. The first two themes mostly concern carbon sequestration and forest ecosystems, and the other three are topics derived from carbon sequestration as such. The main themes of research are described below:

A) Support capacity of afforested open woodlands

  • What kind of wood yield can be expected from plantations following afforestation of open woodlands, based on site features (slope, drainage, soil deposit, etc.), silvicultural treatments (site preparation, etc.), indigenous species planted (black spruce, jack pine, tamarack), and other growth influencing factors that consequently influence carbon accretion in the trees (aboveground and root biomasses), or indirectly in other sinks (litter, soil, dead wood)?
  • What is the intrinsic soil fertility of open woodlands and how is it affected by afforestation relative to the same factors affecting growth?
  • What is the ecological resilience of boreal open woodlands, in terms of plant biodiversity and productivity in view of afforestation? Are certain plant species specific to these boreal open woodlands?

B) Sequestration permanence

  • How can the impact of natural disturbances (fires, insects, windfall, etc.) be integrated into carbon sequestration computations for boreal open woodland afforestation? How can different silvicultural or landscape distribution approaches to the afforestation of open woodlands affect sequestration susceptibility and vulnerability when confronted with natural disturbances?

C) Value creation network

  • How do the different biomass use alternatives (wood products and wood energy) affect sequestration (and thus the offset) efficiency following boreal open woodland afforestation, according to different targeted economic streams (bioenergy instead of fossil fuels for example) through a life-cycle approach?
  • What is the cost of sequestration (price per tonne of sequestered CO2) following boreal open woodland afforestation, according to different yields, silvicultural approaches, biomass use, etc?
  • How can the computation of credible carbon credits, eventually exchangeable on the carbon market, be optimized? What is the result of different afforestation scenarios (silvicultural approaches, growth, biomass use, etc.) in terms of carbon credits?

D) Socio-political issues

  • What is the social acceptability of open woodland afforestation for carbon sequestration? How can the various forest users be included in the decision-making process concerning research and development of this environmental service provided by the forest?
  • How can local communities become less vulnerable (or not) due to boreal open woodland afforestation for carbon sequestration, in terms of job and wealth creation?
  • How can one integrate carbon sinks into future public land tenures?
  • How can one set the foundations of future negotiations for carbon credit ownership between a promoter (individual, industrial, or other) and public forest management?

E) Other non-carbon impacts

  • In the same vein as plant biodiversity, what is the ecological resilience, in terms of animal biodiversity and productivity, of boreal open woodlands in view of afforestation? Are certain animal species specific to boreal open woodlands?
  • How do changes in albedo and moisture regime caused by boreal open woodland afforestation influence the local and global results of climate change mitigation?

13. What does the Carbone boréal logo represent?

logo_carbone_boreal2013

  • Carbon sequestration – Represented by the black dot, a CO2 molecule captured by a tree through photosynthesis. This is the foundation of both the offset (GHG sink) and research programmes centred on understanding and quantifying net sequestration by trees following afforestation of open woodlands.
  • Ecosystem-based approach – Represented by the two trees, the approach is at the centre of the offset principle as computations are not based on the trees alone, but on the overall carbon sequestration as a result of trees capturing CO2 from the atmosphere, meaning all of the carbon found in the litter, over the longer term in the mineral soil, and in the dead wood (still standing and on or in the ground). That is one of the main differences from other programmes based on trees alone. Carbone boréal indeed accounts for all IPCC-recognized reservoirs that can sequester carbon in forest ecosystems. In other words, the Carbone boréal offset unit basis is not the tree as such, but also includes the part of the ecosystem comprising trees. The ecosystem-based approach is also at the heart of the research programme, as the planned studies will cover the impact of boreal open woodland afforestation on the principal components of the forest ecosystem, particularly the ecological resilience of plant and animal biodiversity, soil fertility, the impact of natural disturbances, etc.
  • Future generations – Symbolized by the smaller of the two trees and representing the sustainable development foundations of the Carbone boréal programme. The environmental (GHG mitigation, ecosystem-based approach), economical (carbon credits, forestry, mitigation by large final emitters), and social (local jobs, local expertise, social acceptability) issues, are all dealt with in both the Carbone boréal offset and research programmes. The Climate PositiveTM approach offered to Carbone boréal contributors as a means of doubling their carbon offset to the benefit of future generations is another aspect of the sustainable philosophy.

N.B.: The Carbone boréal logo is a trade-mark (?) and any reproduction thereof is punishable by law. An altered version of the logo is given to every contributor for distribution. The logo was created by Pigé! Communication.